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cedega 5.2 1

Cedega (formerly known as WineX) is the >proprietary> >fork> by >TransGaming Technologies> of >Wine>, from the last version of >Wine> under the >X11 license> before switching to >GNU LGPL>. It was designed specifically for running >games> created for >Microsoft Windows> under >Linux>. As such, its primary focus was implementing the >DirectX> >API>. WineX was renamed to Cedega on the release of version 4.0 on June 22, 2004.

Though Cedega is mainly >proprietary software>, TransGaming does make part of the source publicly available via >CVS>, under a mix of licenses.>[2]> Though this is mainly done to allow a means for non-TG staff to view and submit fixes to the code, it is also frequently used as a means to obtain a quasi-demonstration version of Cedega. TransGaming released a proper demo of Cedega because of complaints of the difficulty of building a usable version of the program from the public CVS, as well as its outdated nature. The demo released by Cedega gave users a 14-day trial of a reasonably current version of the product with a watermark of the Cedega logo which faded from almost transparent to fully opaque every few seconds. This demo was removed without comment.

While the licenses under which the code is released do permit non-commercial redistribution of precompiled public-CVS versions of the software, TransGaming strongly discourages this, openly warning that the license of TG-copyrighted sections of code will be changed if they feel abuse is occurring or otherwise threatened. TransGaming similarly discourages source-based distributions like >Gentoo Linux> from creating automated tools to let people build their own version of Cedega from the public CVS.>[3]>

The Wine project originally released Wine under the same >MIT License> as the X Window System, but owing to concern about >proprietary> versions of Wine not contributing their changes back to the core project,>[4]> work as of March 2002 has used the LGPL for its licensing.>[5]>

In some cases it closely mimics the experience that Windows users have (insert disc, run Setup.exe, play). In other cases some amount of user tweaking is required to get the game installed and in a state of playability. Cedega 5.2 introduced a feature called the Games Disc Database (GDDB) that simplifies many of these settings and adds auto-game detection when a CD is inserted so that settings are applied for the inserted game automatically.

Cedega subscribers have been reducing constantly and have expressed a number of complaints>[6]> due to lack of updates, fatal problems with supported games and with Wine having achieved a number of features that were unique to Cedega, giving even better compatibility in some cases. Users attribute the apparent lack of interest from TransGaming on Cedega to their focus on >Cider>, a similar MS-Win32, Wine-based API layer for Mac OS X systems, supported by >Electronics Arts> to bring their Windows native games to Mac.>[7]>

On November 13, 2007’s Development Status report, TransGaming explained that a number of modification have been made to Cedega’s code to add Wine’s implementation of the >MSI> installation system and to be able to incorporate more of Wine’s codebase.>[8]> It has not been confirmed if these changes are in conformance with Wine’s new license (GNU >LGPL>).

Also on the November 13, 2007 report, it was announced that all of the work done on Cider will be merged back into Cedega (since both share the same code). Among the new features are “new copy protection, 2.0 shader updates, a head start on shader model 3.0, performance upgrades, a self updating user interface” and others.>[8]> On September 23, Cedega officially presented the new version 6.1

TransGaming’s business practice of benefiting financially from the Wine project, without contributing anything back to it has drawn criticism. TransGaming obtained the source to the original Wine project when it was under the >MIT License> and this license placed no requirements on how TransGaming published their software. TransGaming decided to release their software as proprietary software.>[10]> TransGaming does release portions of the source code via CVS; however, it attaches legal restrictions. Cedega includes licensed support for several types of CD-based copy protection (notably SecuROM and SafeDisc), the code for which TransGaming say they are under contract not to disclose.

In 2002 the Wine project changed its license to the GNU Lesser General Public License (LGPL). This means that anyone who publishes a modified version of Wine must publish the source code under an LGPL-compatible license. TransGaming halted using code contributed to Wine when the license was changed, though this has resumed with TransGaming integrating certain LGPL portions of Wine into Cedega and placing those portions of the source code on their public servers.[>citation needed>]

TransGaming offers a CVS tree for Cedega without copy protection related code and texture compression through its own >repositories> with mixed >LGPL>, >AFPL> and bstring licensing.>[11]> >Point2Play> graphical frontend for Cedega is also not found on the CVS.

>Scripts> and >guides> have been made by the community to facilitate building Cedega from the source tree.

avformat lav 53 dll

There are many different Messages that Dll Error might show up on your computer.

Avformat-lav-53.dll is a type of DLL file associated with Third-Party Application developed by Windows Software Developer for the Windows Operating System. The latest known version of Avformat-lav-53.dll is 1.0, which was produced for Windows XP. This DLL file carries a popularity rating of 1 stars and a security rating of “UNKNOWN”.

For example, let’s say you are running Windows XP and editing a document in Microsoft Word. The DLL file that controls printing does not need to load unless it’s function is needed – eg. you decide to print your document. When you select “Print”, Microsoft Word calls the printer DLL file, and it is loaded into memory (RAM) at that time. If you want to print a document in another program, Adobe Acrobat for example, that same printer DLL file will be used as well.

Because they are shared files, DLL files exist outside of the software application itself. Although this provides many benefits for software developers, this separation also provides an opportunity for problems to occur.

These DLL error messages can appear during program installation, while a avformat-lav-53.dll-related software program (eg. Third-Party Application) is running, during Windows startup or shutdown, or even during the installation of the Windows operating system. Keeping track of when and where your avformat-lav-53.dll error occurs is a critical piece of information in troubleshooting the problem.

Most avformat-lav-53.dll errors are related to missing or corrupt avformat-lav-53.dll files. Because avformat-lav-53.dll is an external file, it presents a great opportunity for something undesirable to occur.

Improperly shutting down your PC or getting a virus infection could corrupt the avformat-lav-53.dll, which could lead to DLL errors. When your avformat-lav-53.dll file becomes corrupt, it cannot be loaded properly and will present an error message.

Other times, avformat-lav-53.dll file errors could be related to issues in the Windows registry. Broken DLL file references can prevent your DLL file from registering properly, giving you a avformat-lav-53.dll error. These broken registry keys can be as a result of a missing DLL file, moved DLL file, or an leftover DLL file reference in your Windows registry from an unsuccessful software installation or uninstallation.

Caution: We do not recommend downloading avformat-lav-53.dll from “DLL download” sites. These sites distribute DLL files that are unapproved by the official avformat-lav-53.dll file developer, and can often be bundled with virus-infected or other malicious files. If you require a copy of avformat-lav-53.dll, it is recommended that you obtain it directly from Windows Software Developer.

Below is a list of troubleshooting steps to resolve your avformat-lav-53.dll problems. These troubleshooting steps get progressively more difficult and time consuming, so we strongly recommend attempting them in ascending order to avoid unnecessary time and effort.

Please Note: Click the [ Open ] image to expand the troubleshooting instructions for each step below. You can also click the [ Close ] image to hide the instructions as you proceed through each step.

When you install software that uses the avformat-lav-53.dll dependency, the software should automatically register the file for you. In some cases your DLL file may not register properly, and as a result, will provide a “avformat-lav-53.dll not registered” error. Fortunately, you can use a built-in utility called “Microsoft Register Server” (regsvr32.exe) to re-register your avformat-lav-53.dll file.

Sometimes avformat-lav-53.dll and other DLL system errors can be related to problems in the Windows registry. Several programs can share the same avformat-lav-53.dll file, but when these programs are uninstalled or changed, sometimes “orphaned” (invalid) DLL registry entries are left behind.

Basically, what this means is that while the actual file path may have changed, its incorrect former location is still recorded in the Windows registry. When Windows tries looking up these incorrect file references (file locations on your PC), avformat-lav-53.dll errors can occur. In addition, malware infection may have corrupted the registry entries associated with Third-Party Application. Thus, these invalid DLL registry entries need to be repaired to fix the root of the problem.

Manually editing the Windows registry to remove invalid avformat-lav-53.dll keys is not recommended unless you are PC service professional. Incorrectly editing your registry can stop your PC from functioning and create irreversible damage to your operating system. In fact, one misplaced comma can prevent your PC from booting entirely!

Because of this risk, we highly recommend using a trusted registry cleaner such as >WinThruster> (Developed by Microsoft Gold Certified Partner) to scan and repair any avformat-lav-53.dll-related registry problems. Using a >registry cleaner> automates the process of finding invalid registry entries, missing file references (like the one causing your avformat-lav-53.dll error), and broken links within the registry. A backup is automatically created before each scan, with the ability to undo any changes in a single click, protecting you against the possibility of PC damage. The best part is that >repairing registry errors> can also dramatically improve system speed and performance.

Caution: Unless you an advanced PC user, we DO NOT recommend editing the Windows registry manually. Using Registry Editor incorrectly can cause serious problems that may require you to reinstall Windows. We do not guarantee that problems resulting from the incorrect use of Registry Editor can be solved. Use Registry Editor at your own risk.

To manually repair your Windows registry, first you need to create a backup by exporting a portion of the registry related to avformat-lav-53.dll (eg. Third-Party Application):

The next steps in manually editing your registry will not be discussed in this article due to the high risk of damaging your system. If you would like to learn more about manual registry editing, please see the links below.

We do not claim any responsibility for the results of the actions taken from the content linked below – complete these tasks at your own risk.

This may seem like an obvious or ridiculous step, but it is very possible that your avformat-lav-53.dll might have been accidentally deleted. Therefore, it is worth checking your Recycle Bin to see if it’s there.

Tip: If you are positive that you deleted the avformat-lav-53.dll file AND emptied the Recycle Bin, then you will need to use a file recovery program to restore the avformat-lav-53.dll file. >Click here to download a highly recommended file recovery program>.

There is a chance that your avformat-lav-53.dll error could be related to a malware infection on your PC. These malicious intruders can damage, corrupt, or even delete DLL-related files. Furthermore, there’s a possibility that the avformat-lav-53.dll error you are experiencing is related to a component of the malicious program itself.

Tip: If you do not already have a malware protection program installed, we highly recommend using Emsisoft Anti-Malware (>download here>). They offer a malware removal guarantee that is not offered by other security software.

Avformat-lav-53.dll errors can be related to corrupt or outdated device drivers. Drivers can work one day, and suddenly stop working the next day, for a variety of reasons. The good news is that you can often update the device driver to fix the DLL problem.

Finding the exact driver for your avformat-lav-53.dll-related hardware device can be extremely difficult, even directly on the Windows Software Developer or related manufacturer’s website. Even if you are experienced at finding, downloading, and manually updating drivers, the process can still be very time consuming and extremely irritating. Installing the wrong driver, or simply an incompatible version of the right driver, can make your problems even worse.

>DriverDoc> updates all of your PC device drivers, not just those associated with your DLL error. >DriverDoc’s> proprietary One-Click Update™ technology not only ensures that you have correct driver versions for your hardware, but it also creates a backup of your current drivers before making any changes. Maintaining a driver backup provides you with the security of knowing that you can rollback any driver to a previous version if necessary. With updated device drivers, you can finally unlock new hardware features and improve the speed and performance of your PC.

Windows System Restore allows you to “go back in time” with your PC to help fix your avformat-lav-53.dll problems. System Restore can return your PC’s system files and programs back to a time when everything was working fine. This can potentially help you avoid hours of troubleshooting headaches associated with DLL errors.

After you have successfully uninstalled your avformat-lav-53.dll-associated program (eg. Third-Party Application), reinstall the program according to the Windows Software Developer instructions.

Tip: If you are positive that your DLL error is related to a specific Windows Software Developer program, uninstalling and reinstalling your avformat-lav-53.dll-related program will likely be the solution to your problem.

System File Checker is a vital tool included with Windows. It allows you to scan for file corruption and restore Windows system files such as avformat-lav-53.dll. If System File Checker finds a problem with avformat-lav-53.dll or other critical system file, it will attempt to replace the problematic files from DLL Cache (%WinDir%\System32\Dllcache\). If the avformat-lav-53.dll file is not in the DLL Cache, or the DLL Cache is corrupted, you will be prompted to insert the Windows installation disc to recover the original files.

Microsoft is constantly updating and improving Windows system files that could be associated with avformat-lav-53.dll. Sometimes resolving your DLL problems may be as simple as updating Windows with the latest Service Pack or other patch that Microsoft releases on an ongoing basis.

Caution: We must emphasize that reinstalling Windows will be a very time-consuming and advanced task to resolve avformat-lav-53.dll problems. To avoid data loss, you must be sure that you have backed-up all of your important documents, pictures, software installers, and other personal data before beginning the process. If you are not currently backing up your data, you need to do so immediately (>download a highly-recommended backup solution>) to protect yourself from permanent data loss.

This step is your final option in trying to resolve your avformat-lav-53.dll issue. Reinstalling Windows will erase everything from your hard drive, allowing you to start again with a fresh system. Furthermore, a clean install of Windows will also quickly clean out any and all “junk” that has accumulated over the normal usage of your computer.

Please Note: If avformat-lav-53.dll errors still persist after a clean install of Windows, your DLL problem MUST be hardware related. If that is the case, then it is likely you will need to replace the associated hardware causing the avformat-lav-53.dll error.

Avformat-lav-53.dll error messages can occur in any of the following Microsoft Windows operating systems:

Please reach out to us anytime on social media for more help:

About The Author: >Jay Geater> is the President and CEO of Solvusoft Corporation, a global software company focused on providing innovative utility software. He is a lifelong computer geek and loves everything related to computers, software, and new technology.

Solvusoft is recognized by Microsoft as a leading Independent Software Vendor, achieving the highest level of completence and excellence in software development. Solvusoft’s close relationship with Microsoft as a Gold Certified Partner enables us to provide best-in-class software solutions that are optimized for performance on Windows operating systems.

To achieve a Gold competency level, Solvusoft goes through extensive independent analysis that looks for, amongst other qualities, a high level of software expertise, a successful customer service track record, and top-tier customer value. As a Gold Certified Independent Software Vendor (ISV), Solvusoft is able to provide the highest level of customer satisfaction through delivering top-level software and service solutions, which have been subject to a rigourous and continually-audited approval process by Microsoft.

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Autodata – одна из наиболее известных и популярных во всем мире программ по ремонту автомобилей для автосервисов.

Много лет компания Autodata Limited выпускала своё программное обеспечение на CD дисках, некоторые версии взламывались и были доступны для бесплатного скачивания в интернете.

Сообщение о прекращении выпуска дисков на официальном сайте компании Autodata Limited:Прекращение срока действия всех CD Autodata

Перевод: Сообщение о прекращении срока лицензии для всех CD AUTODATA: Срок действия всех CD AUTODATA истекает 31 декабря 2014 года, так как все продукты становятся доступны исключительно в онлайн версии …

Последние диски полной лицензионной версии Autodata на английском языке были выпущены в 2013 году, компания Autodata Limited полностью прекратила продажу CD и DVD дисков, все программные продукты >переведены в онлайн версию>

>Autodata RUS> – Автодата на русском у официального дистрибьютора в РФ и СНГ.

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Regexps are so useful in computing that the various systems to specify regexps have evolved to provide both a basic and extended standard for the grammar and syntax; modern regexps heavily augment the standard. Regexp processors are found in several >search engines>, search and replace dialogs of several >word processors> and >text editors>, and in the command lines of >text processing utilities>, such as >sed> and >AWK>.

The phrase regular expressions (and consequently, regexps) is often used to mean the specific, standard textual syntax (distinct from the mathematical notation described below) for representing patterns that matching text need to conform to. Each character in a regular expression (that is, each character in the string describing its pattern) is understood to be a >metacharacter> (with its special meaning), or a regular character (with its literal meaning). Together, they can be used to identify textual material of a given pattern, or process a number of instances of it. Pattern-matches can vary from a precise equality to a very general similarity (controlled by the metacharacters). The metacharacter syntax is designed specifically to represent prescribed targets in a concise and flexible way to direct the automation of >text processing> of a variety of input data, in a form easy to type using standard >ASCII> >keyboard>.

A very simple case of a regular expression in this syntax would be to locate the same word spelled two different ways in a >text editor>, the regular expression seriali[sz]e matches both “serialise” and “serialize”. >Wildcards> could also achieve this, but are more limited in what they can pattern (having fewer metacharacters and a simple language-base).

The usual context of >wildcard characters> is in >globbing> similar names in a list of files, whereas regexps are usually employed in applications that pattern-match text strings in general. For example, the regexp ^[ \t]+|[ \t]+$ matches excess whitespace at the beginning or end of a line. An advanced regexp used to match any numeral is ^[+-]?(\d+(\.\d+)?|\.\d+)([eE][+-]?\d+)?$. See >Examples> for more examples.

A regexp processor translates a regular expression in the above syntax into an internal representation which can be executed and matched against a >string> representing the text being searched in. One possible approach is the >Thompson’s construction algorithm> to construct a >nondeterministic finite automaton> (NFA), which is then >made deterministic> and the resulting >DFA> is run on the target text string to recognize substrings that match the regular expression. The picture shows the NFA scheme N(s*) obtained from the regular expression s*, where s denotes a simpler regular expression in turn, which has already been >recursively> translated to the NFA N(s).

Regular expressions entered popular use from 1968 in two uses: pattern matching in a text editor>[4]> and lexical analysis in a compiler.>[5]> Among the first appearances of regular expressions in program form was when >Ken Thompson> built Kleene’s notation into the editor >QED> as a means to match patterns in >text files>.>[4]>>[6]>>[7]>>[8]> For speed, Thompson implemented regular expression matching by >just-in-time compilation> (JIT) to >IBM 7094> code on the >Compatible Time-Sharing System>, an important early example of JIT compilation.>[9]> He later added this capability to the Unix editor >ed>, which eventually led to the popular search tool >grep>’s use of regular expressions (“grep” is a word derived from the command for regular expression searching in the ed editor: g/re/p meaning “Global search for Regular Expression and Print matching lines”>[10]>). Around the same time when Thompson developed QED, a group of researchers including >Douglas T. Ross> implemented a tool based on regular expressions that is used for >lexical analysis> in >compiler> design.>[5]>

Many variations of these original forms of regular expressions were used in >Unix>>[8]> programs at >Bell Labs> in the 1970s, including >vi>, >lex>, >sed>, >AWK>, and >expr>, and in other programs such as >Emacs>. Regexps were subsequently adopted by a wide range of programs, with these early forms standardized in the >POSIX.2> standard in 1992.

In the 1980s the more complicated regexps arose in >Perl>, which originally derived from a regex library written by >Henry Spencer> (1986), who later wrote an implementation of Advanced Regular Expressions for >Tcl>.>[11]> The Tcl library is a hybrid >NFA>/>DFA> implementation with improved performance characteristics, earning praise from >Jeffrey Friedl> who said, “…it really seems quite wonderful.”>[12]> Software projects that have adopted Spencer’s Tcl regular expression implementation include >PostgreSQL>.>[13]> Perl later expanded on Spencer’s original library to add many new features,>[14]> but has not yet caught up with Spencer’s Advanced Regular Expressions implementation in terms of performance or >Unicode> handling.>[15]>>[16]> Part of the effort in the design of >Perl 6> is to improve Perl’s regexp integration, and to increase their scope and capabilities to allow the definition of >parsing expression grammars>.>[17]> The result is a >mini-language> called >Perl 6 rules>, which are used to define Perl 6 grammar as well as provide a tool to programmers in the language. These rules maintain existing features of Perl 5.x regexps, but also allow >BNF>-style definition of a >recursive descent parser> via sub-rules.

The use of regexps in structured information standards for document and database modeling started in the 1960s and expanded in the 1980s when industry standards like >ISO SGML> (precursored by ANSI “GCA 101-1983”) consolidated. The kernel of the >structure specification language> standards consists of regexps. Its use is evident in the >DTD> element group syntax.

Starting in 1997, >Philip Hazel> developed >PCRE> (Perl Compatible Regular Expressions), which attempts to closely mimic Perl’s regexp functionality and is used by many modern tools including >PHP> and >Apache HTTP Server>.

A regular expression, often called a pattern, is an expression used to specify a >set> of strings required for a particular purpose. A simple way to specify a finite set of strings is to list its >elements> or members. However, there are often more concise ways to specify the desired set of strings. For example, the set containing the three strings “Handel”, “Händel”, and “Haendel” can be specified by the pattern H(ä|ae?)ndel; we say that this pattern matches each of the three strings. In most >formalisms>, if there exists at least one regular expression that matches a particular set then there exists an infinite number of other regular expression that also match it—the specification is not unique. Most formalisms provide the following operations to construct regular expressions.

These constructions can be combined to form arbitrarily complex expressions, much like one can construct arithmetical expressions from numbers and the operations +, , ×, and ÷. For example, H(ae?|ä)ndel and H(a|ae|ä)ndel are both valid patterns which match the same strings as the earlier example, H(ä|ae?)ndel.

Regular expressions consist of constants and operator symbols that denote sets of strings and operations over these sets, respectively. The following definition is standard, and found as such in most textbooks on formal language theory.>[19]>>[20]> Given a finite >alphabet> Σ, the following constants are defined as regular expressions:

Given regular expressions R and S, the following operations over them are defined to produce regular expressions:

To avoid parentheses it is assumed that the Kleene star has the highest priority, then concatenation and then alternation. If there is no ambiguity then parentheses may be omitted. For example, (ab)c can be written as abc, and a|(b(c*)) can be written as a|bc*. Many textbooks use the symbols ∪, +, or ∨ for alternation instead of the vertical bar.

The formal definition of regular expressions is purposely parsimonious and avoids defining the redundant quantifiers ? and +, which can be expressed as follows: a+ = aa*, and a? = (a|ε). Sometimes the >complement> operator is added, to give a generalized regular expression; here Rc matches all strings over Σ* that do not match R. In principle, the complement operator is redundant, as it can always be circumscribed by using the other operators. However, the process for computing such a representation is complex, and the result may require expressions of a size that is >double exponentially> larger.>[21]>>[22]>

On the other hand, it is known that every deterministic finite automaton accepting the language Lk must have at least 2k states. Luckily, there is a simple mapping from regular expressions to the more general >nondeterministic finite automata> (NFAs) that does not lead to such a blowup in size; for this reason NFAs are often used as alternative representations of regular languages. NFAs are a simple variation of the type-3 >grammars> of the >Chomsky hierarchy>.>[19]>

Finally, it is worth noting that many real-world “regular expression” engines implement features that cannot be described by the regular expressions in the sense of formal language theory; rather, they implement regexps. See >below> for more on this.

As seen in many of the examples above, there is more than one way to construct a regular expression to achieve the same results.

The redundancy can be eliminated by using >Kleene star> and >set union> to find an interesting subset of regular expressions that is still fully expressive, but perhaps their use can be restricted.[>clarification needed>] This is a surprisingly difficult problem. As simple as the regular expressions are, there is no method to systematically rewrite them to some normal form. The lack of axiom in the past led to the >star height problem>. In 1991, >Dexter Kozen> axiomatized regular expressions with >Kleene algebra>;>[23]> see >Kleene algebra#History> for details.

A regexp pattern matches a target string. The pattern is composed of a sequence of atoms. An atom is a single point within the regexp pattern which it tries to match to the target string. The simplest atom is a literal, but grouping parts of the pattern to match an atom will require using ( ) as metacharacters. Metacharacters help form: atoms; quantifiers telling how many atoms (and whether it is a >greedy quantifier> or not); a logical OR character, which offers a set of alternatives, and a logical NOT character, which negates an atom’s existence; and backreferences to refer to previous atoms of a completing pattern of atoms. A match is made, not when all the atoms of the string are matched, but rather when all the pattern atoms in the regexp have matched. The idea is to make a small pattern of characters stand for a large number of possible strings, rather than compiling a large list of all the literal possibilities.

Depending on the regexp processor there are about fourteen metacharacters, characters that may or may not have their >literal> character meaning, depending on context, or whether they are “escaped”, i.e. preceded by an >escape sequence>, in this case, the backslash \. Modern and POSIX extended regexps use metacharacters more often than their literal meaning, so to avoid “backslash-osis” it makes sense to have a metacharacter escape to a literal mode; but starting out, it makes more sense to have the four bracketing metacharacters ( ) and { } be primarily literal, and “escape” this usual meaning to become metacharacters. Common standards implement both. The usual metacharacters are {}[]()^$.|*+? and \. The usual characters that become metacharacters when escaped are dsw.DSW and N.

When entering a regexp in a programming language, they may be represented as a usual string literal, hence usually quoted; this is common in C, Java, and Python for instance, where the regexp re is entered as "re". However, they are often written with slashes as >delimiters>, as in /re/ for the regexp re. This originates in ed, where / is the editor command for searching, and an expression /re/ can be used to specify a range of lines (matching the pattern), which can be combined with other commands on either side, most famously g/re/p as in >grep> (“global regex print”), which is included in most >Unix>-based operating systems, such as >Linux> distributions. A similar convention is used in >sed>, where search and replace is given by s/re/replacement/ and patterns can be joined with a comma to specify a range of lines as in /re1/,/re2/. This notation is particularly well-known due to its use in >Perl>, where it forms part of the syntax distinct from normal string literals. In some cases, such as sed and Perl, alternative delimiters can be used to avoid collision with contents, and to avoid having to escape occurrences of the delimiter character in the contents. For example, in sed the command s,/,X, will replace a / with an X, using commas as delimiters.

BRE and ERE work together. ERE adds ?, +, and |, and it removes the need to escape the metacharacters ( ) and { }, which are required in BRE. Furthermore, as long as the POSIX standard syntax for regexps is adhered to, there can be, and often is, additional syntax to serve specific (yet POSIX compliant) applications. Although POSIX.2 leaves some implementation specifics undefined, BRE and ERE provide a “standard” which has since been adopted as the default syntax of many tools, where the choice of BRE or ERE modes is usually a supported option. For example, GNU grep has the following options: “grep -E” for ERE, and “grep -G” for BRE (the default), and “grep -P” for Perl regexps.

>Perl> regexps have become a de facto standard, having a rich and powerful set of atomic expressions. Perl has no “basic” or “extended” levels, where the ( ) and { } may or may not have literal meanings. They are always metacharacters, as they are in “extended” mode for POSIX. To get their literal meaning, you escape them. Other metacharacters are known to be literal or symbolic based on context alone. Perl offers much more functionality: “lazy” regexps, >backtracking>, named capture groups, and >recursive> patterns, all of which are powerful additions to POSIX BRE/ERE. (See >lazy matching> below.)

The - character is treated as a literal character if it is the last or the first (after the ^, if present) character within the brackets: [abc-], [-abc]. Note that backslash escapes are not allowed. The ] character can be included in a bracket expression if it is the first (after the ^) character: []abc].

The meaning of metacharacters >escaped> with a backslash is reversed for some characters in the POSIX Extended Regular Expression (ERE) syntax. With this syntax, a backslash causes the metacharacter to be treated as a literal character. So, for example, \( \) is now ( ) and \{ \} is now { }. Additionally, support is removed for \n backreferences and the following metacharacters are added:

POSIX Extended Regular Expressions can often be used with modern Unix utilities by including the >command line> flag -E.

The character class is the most basic regexp concept after a literal match. It makes one small sequence of characters match a larger set of characters. For example, [A-Z] could stand for the upper case alphabet, and \d could mean any digit. Character classes apply to both POSIX levels.

When specifying a range of characters, such as [a-Z] (i.e. lowercase a to upper-case z), the computer’s locale settings determine the contents by the numeric ordering of the character encoding. They could store digits in that sequence, or the ordering could be abc…zABC…Z, or aAbBcC…zZ. So the POSIX standard defines a character class, which will be known by the regexp processor installed. Those definitions are in the following table:

An additional non-POSIX class understood by some tools is [:word:], which is usually defined as [:alnum:] plus underscore. This reflects the fact that in many programming languages these are the characters that may be used in identifiers. The editor >Vim> further distinguishes word and word-head classes (using the notation \w and \h) since in many programming languages the characters that can begin an identifier are not the same as those that can occur in other positions.

Because of its expressive power and (relative) ease of reading, many other utilities and programming languages have adopted syntax similar to Perl’s—for example, >Java>, >JavaScript>, >Python>, >Ruby>, >Microsoft>’s >.NET Framework>, and >XML Schema>. Some languages and tools such as >Boost> and >PHP> support multiple regexp flavors. Perl-derivative regexp implementations are not identical and usually implement a subset of features found in Perl 5.0, released in 1994. Perl sometimes does incorporate features initially found in other languages, for example, Perl 5.10 implements syntactic extensions originally developed in >PCRE> and Python.>[26]>

The three common quantifiers (*, + and ?) are >greedy> by default because they match as many characters as possible.>[27]> The regexp ".*" applied to the string

Many features found in virtually all modern regular expression libraries provide an expressive power that far exceeds the >regular languages>. For example, many implementations allow grouping subexpressions with parentheses and recalling the value they match in the same expression (backreferences). This means that, among other things, a pattern can match strings of repeated words like “papa” or “WikiWiki”, called squares in formal language theory. The pattern for these strings is (.+)\1.

However, many tools, libraries, and engines that provide such constructions still use the term regular expression for their patterns. This has led to a nomenclature where the term regular expression has different meanings in >formal language theory> and pattern matching. For this reason, some people have taken to using the term regex, regexp, or simply pattern to describe the latter. >Larry Wall>, author of the Perl programming language, writes in an essay about the design of Perl 6:

“Regular expressions” […] are only marginally related to real regular expressions. Nevertheless, the term has grown with the capabilities of our pattern matching engines, so I’m not going to try to fight linguistic necessity here. I will, however, generally call them “regexes” (or “regexen”, when I’m in an Anglo-Saxon mood).>[17]>

Variants of regexps can be used for working with text in >natural language>, when it is necessary to take into account possible typos and spelling variants. For example, the text “Julius Caesar” might be a fuzzy match for:

There are at least three different >algorithms> that decide whether and how a given regexp matches a string.

The oldest and fastest relies on a result in formal language theory that allows every >nondeterministic finite automaton> (NFA) to be transformed into a >deterministic finite automaton> (DFA). The DFA can be constructed explicitly and then run on the resulting input string one symbol at a time. Constructing the DFA for a regular expression of size m has the time and memory cost of >O>(2m), but it can be run on a string of size n in time O(n).

An alternative approach is to simulate the NFA directly, essentially building each DFA state on demand and then discarding it at the next step. This keeps the DFA implicit and avoids the exponential construction cost, but running cost rises to O(mn). The explicit approach is called the DFA algorithm and the implicit approach the NFA algorithm. Adding caching to the NFA algorithm is often called the “lazy DFA” algorithm, or just the DFA algorithm without making a distinction. These algorithms are fast, but using them for recalling grouped subexpressions, lazy quantification, and similar features is tricky.>[29]>>[30]>

The third algorithm is to match the pattern against the input string by >backtracking>. This algorithm is commonly called NFA, but this terminology can be confusing. Its running time can be exponential, which simple implementations exhibit when matching against expressions like (a|aa)*b that contain both alternation and unbounded quantification and force the algorithm to consider an exponentially increasing number of sub-cases. This behavior can cause a security problem called >Regular expression Denial of Service>.

Although backtracking implementations only give an exponential guarantee in the worst case, they provide much greater flexibility and expressive power. For example, any implementation which allows the use of backreferences, or implements the various extensions introduced by Perl, must include some kind of backtracking. Some implementations[>which?>] try to provide the best of both algorithms by first running a fast DFA algorithm, and revert to a potentially slower backtracking algorithm only when a backreference is encountered during the match.

In theoretical terms, any token set can be matched by regular expressions as long as it is pre-defined. In terms of historical implementations, regexps were originally written to use >ASCII> characters as their token set though regexp libraries have supported numerous other >character sets>. Many modern regexp engines offer at least some support for >Unicode>. In most respects it makes no difference what the character set is, but some issues do arise when extending regexps to support Unicode.

While regexps would be useful on Internet >search engines>, processing them across the entire database could consume excessive computer resources depending on the complexity and design of the regex. Although in many cases system administrators can run regex-based queries internally, most search engines do not offer regex support to the public. Notable exceptions: >Google Code Search>, >Exalead>. However, Google Code Search has been shut down as of March 2013.>[33]>[>better source needed>]

Because regexps can be difficult to both explain and understand without examples, >interactive web sites> for testing regexps are a useful resource for learning regexps by experimentation. This section provides a basic description of some of the properties of regexps by way of illustration.

Unless otherwise indicated, the following examples conform to the >Perl> programming language, release 5.8.8, January 31, 2006. This means that other implementations may lack support for some parts of the syntax shown here (e.g. basic vs. extended regex, \( \) vs. (), or lack of \d instead of >POSIX> [:digit:]).

The syntax and conventions used in these examples coincide with that of other programming environments as well.>[35]>

Regular expressions can often be created (“induced” or “learned”) based on a set of example strings. This is known as the >induction of regular languages>, and is part of the general problem of >grammar induction> in >computational learning theory>. Formally, given examples of strings in a regular language, and perhaps also given examples of strings not in that regular language, it is possible to induce a grammar for the language, i.e., a regular expression that generates that language. Not all regular languages can be induced in this way (see >language identification in the limit>), but many can. For example, the set of examples {1, 10, 100}, and negative set (of counterexamples) {11, 1001, 101, 0} can be used to induce the regular expression 1⋅0* (1 followed by zero or more 0s).

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